Read e-book online A Companion to Metaphysics PDF

By Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

ISBN-10: 1405152982

ISBN-13: 9781405152983

Totally prolonged and revised, A better half to Metaphysics 2d Edition contains a component to distinctive evaluate essays from popular metaphysicians, and the addition of greater than 30 new encyclopedic entries, taking the variety of entries to over three hundred.

  • Includes revisions to current encyclopedic entries
  • Features greater than 30 all-new "A to Z" entries
  • Offers a bit of in-depth, essays from well known metaphysicians
  • Provides the main whole and up to date reference consultant for college kids and pros alike

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About the Author

Shaun Gallagher is Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Sciences, and Senior Researcher on the Institute of Simulation and coaching, on the college of valuable Florida (USA); he has secondary learn appointments on the college of Hertfordshire and the college of Copenhagen. He has been vacationing Scientist on the Cognition and mind Sciences Unit, Cambridge, and vacationing Professor on the college of Copenhagen, the Centre de Recherche en Epistemelogie Appliquee (CREA), Paris, and the Ecole Normale Superiure, Lyon.

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Example text

Doctrines of determinism thus seem to threaten both features of free will mentioned earlier. If determinism is true, it seems that it would not be (1) “up to” agents what they chose from an array of alternative possibilities, since only one alternative future would be possible, given the past and laws. It also seems that, if determinism were true, the (2) sources or origins of choices and actions would not be in the agents themselves, but in something outside their control that determined their choices and actions (such as the decrees of fate, the foreordaining acts of God, heredity and upbringing or social conditioning).

Free actions are caused by the agents themselves in a sui generis way that is not reducible to causation by states or events of any kinds involving the agent, physical or mental. Other agent-causalists, such as Clarke (2003), allow that reasons for action (such as desires and beliefs) can causally influence choices and actions. But he also postulates a special non-event causation by agents to explain what tips the balance between reasons for one choice or action rather than another. Critics of agentcausal theories, such as Watson, argue that appeals to a special kind of non-event causation by substances are no less mysterious than Kantian appeals to noumenal selves or Cartesian appeals to disembodied minds to explain undetermined free choices.

But they should not be confused with them. A metaphysical principle of individuation tells us what determines the identity of an object, in the sense that it tells us what determines which object it is. A criterion of identity, by contrast, tells us what determines whether an object belonging to a given ontological category is or is not identical with another such object. In the latter case, we are concerned with identity conceived as a relation, whereas in the former case we are concerned with “identity” in the sense of individual ESSENCE (to use a traditional term).

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A Companion to Metaphysics by Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

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