By Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.)
Shortly after its inauguration in 1985 the Birla technology Centre, Hyderabad, India, all started a chain of lectures by way of Nobel Laureates and different scientists of foreign renown, frequently in Physics and Astronomy, occasionally in lifestyles Sciences and Chemistry.
The current assortment as a rule contains lectures on frontier subject matters. The transcript of every lecture is preceded via a brief biography of the Nobel Laureate/Scientist in question.
The lectures are aimed toward, and obtainable to a large non-specialist yet larger informed audience.
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Extra resources for A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century
So that’s the magic cycle of life. Because once you have the energy the rest can happen in many many ways. Now I want to look at the history of that energy with the history of photosynthesis – past, present, and future to some extent. 6 billion years old. Life or the processes of developing life, have taken a great proportion of that time. Chemical evolution and these processes began almost immediately, presumably, and certainly there were biological processes occurring within a billion years of the birth of the earth.
An aerial view of CERN, Geneva with its underground machines shown schematically Fig. 4. Inside of the LEP tunnel, with deﬂecting magnets 2 Colliders Until about twenty years ago, we studied particles and forces by shooting high-energy particles on stationary matter. They would then hit the nucleus of an atom, usually a simple atom like hydrogen, whose nucleus is just a proton. The problem with this is that most of the energy given to the accelerated particle will turn up, after the collision, as energy of movement (kinetic energy) 32 Simon van der Meer Fig.
Since they have opposite momentum before the collision, the total momentum is zero and momentum conservation does not require that any of the interaction products are accelerated much. So the entire incoming energy can be used for the interaction. We call such machines colliders (although, of course, the old “ﬁxed-target” machines also produced collisions). The disadvantage of colliders is that beams of accelerated particles have a density that is much lower than that of ordinary matter. So if two of these beams collide, the chance of a close encounter of two particles is quite small.
A Century of Ideas: Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century by Fred Hoyle (auth.), Dr. B. G. Sidharth (eds.)